Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Leading Causes

Leading Causes of Hospitalization

Overall
By Sex
By Age Group

Overall

The leading causes of hospitalizations used for this page are based on the chapters found in International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and the International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation (ISHMT) adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1 with modifications discussed and approved by the Leading Cause Group subcommittee of the Core Indicators Working Group, Association of Public Health Epidemiologist in Ontario (APHEO).

Hospitalizations are counted at patient discharge as recorded in the Hospital Discharge Abstract Database (DAD). Causes are based on the most responsible physician diagnosis (diagnosis associated with the longest duration of treatment) during a given hospital stay. Mental Disorders (ICD-10 Chapter 5) are excluded because of changes in the way these data are reported by hospitals. Hospital stays due to pregnancy and birth (ICD-10 Chapter 15) were also excluded, because these do not represent burden of illness and are captured in the birth outcomes statistics (see Pregnancy and Before). Factors influencing health status & contact with health services (ICD-10 Chapter 21) and provisional codes for research and temporary assignment (ICD-10 Chapter 23) were also excluded as they do not represent diseases or conditions.

In 2018, there were nearly 39,000 hospitalizations (as defined above) among residents of Simcoe Muskoka. The number one cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka were diseases of circulatory system, which accounted for one-in-five hospital stays. The other leading causes of hospitalizations, by ICD-10 chapter, in Simcoe Muskoka were: diseases of digestive system (15%), diseases of respiratory system (12%), and injury & poisoning (11%). The leading causes of hospitalizations for Ontario were quite similar to what was observed in Simcoe Muskoka.

120306LCoHbyArea

When looking at the ISHMT causes 1 of hospitalization in Simcoe Muskoka in 2018, Acute Myocardial Infarction (i.e. heart attack) and COPD were the leading causes, each accounting for 4% of all hospitalizations. Other leading causes were: arthrosis of the knee (includes knee replacement), complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and pneumonia, each accounting for approximately 3% of all hospitalizations.

120306LCoHISHMT_PIE

By Sex

In Simcoe Muskoka in 2018, the leading cause of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, for both males and females were diseases of circulatory system. However, the proportion of hospitalizations for diseases of circulatory system was higher for males (20%) when compared with females (15%). Diseases of digestive system, diseases of respiratory system, and injuries & poisoning were other leading causes of hospitalizations for both sexes.

120306LCoHbySexSMDHU

The leading causes of hospitalizations, according to the ISHMT groupings 1, for males in Simcoe Muskoka in 2018 was heart attack which accounted for 4% of all hospitalizations. The second leading cause of hospitalization among males was COPD, which also accounted for approximately 4% of all hospitalizations. Complications of surgical or medical care, heart failure, arthrosis of the knee (including knee replacement), and cerebrovascular diseases were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for Simcoe Muskoka males.

The leading causes 1 of hospitalizations among Simcoe Muskoka females in 2018 was COPD which accounted for 5% of all hospital stays. Arthrosis of the knee (including knee replacement), fracture of femur, complications of surgical or medical care, heart attack, heart failure, and pneumonia were also among the leading causes of hospitalizations for females during this time period.

160210LCoHISHMT_Male_PIE

160210LCoHISHMT_Female_PIE

By Age Group

In Simcoe Muskoka in 2018, the leading causes of hospitalization, by ICD-10 chapter, among infants less than one year were: perinatal conditions, diseases of respiratory system and congenital anomalies, which accounted for about three-quarters of all hospitalizations for this age-group. During the same time period, among children one to nine years of age, diseases of the respiratory system were the leading cause of hospitalization. The most common causes of respiratory illness hospitalizations among children one to nine years were asthma and pneumonia.

Diseases of digestive system (including diseases of the appendix) and injuries & poisonings were the leading cause of hospitalization among youth and adolescents (between 10 and 19 years of age) in Simcoe Muskoka, each accounting for approximately one-fifth of all hospitalizations among this age-group. Also in 2018 among younger adults (between 20 and 44 years), diseases of the digestive system were the leading causes of hospitalizations, accounting for nearly one-quarter of all hospital stays.

Diseases of the circulatory system were the leading cause of hospitalization for older adults and seniors in 2018. The table below provides age-specific leading causes of hospitalizations using both ICD-10 chapters and ISHMT groupings 1 for Simcoe Muskoka in 2018.

Leading Causes of Hospitalization, Simcoe Muskoka Residents, by Age Group, 2018

AGE
GROUP

# OF HOSPITAL STAYS

ICD-10
CHAPTER

ISHMT
GROUPING

<1 yr

964

Perinatal Conditions - 50%
Respiratory Diseases - 16%
Congenital Anomalies – 9%

Disorders Related to Short Gestation and Low Birth Weight– 11%
Congenital Anomalies - 11%

1-9 yrs

1,097

Respiratory Diseases - 33%
Injuries or Poisonings - 9%
Diseases of the Nervous System - 8%

Tonsils/Adenoids - 8%
Asthma – 7%
Pneumonia - 6%

10-19 yrs

1,001

Digestive System Diseases - 21%
Injuries or Poisonings - 20%
Endocrine/Nutritional/Metabolic Dis. - 11%

Diseases of the Appendix - 13%
Diabetes - 9%
Poisoning - 5%

20-44 yrs

4,253

Digestive System Diseases - 23%
Injuries or Poisonings - 16%
Genitourinary System Diseases - 9%

Diseases of the Appendix - 6%
Poisoning - 4%
Surgical/Medical Complications - 4%

45-64 yrs

10,600

Circulatory System Diseases - 17%
Digestive System Diseases - 15%
Musculoskeletal System Disease - 12%

Heart Attack - 5%
Arthrosis of the Knee - 5%
Surgical/Medical Complications - 4%

65-74 yrs

8,503

Circulatory System Diseases - 20%
Musculoskeletal System Diseases - 14%
Digestive System Diseases - 11%

Arthrosis of the Knee - 6%
COPD - 6%
Heart Attack - 5%

75+ yrs

12,527

Circulatory System Diseases - 24%
Respiratory Diseases - 14%
Injuries or Poisonings - 12%

COPD - 7%
Heart Failure - 6%
Fracture of Femur - 5%

Data source: Inpatient Discharges [2018], Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, IntelliHEALTH ONTARIO, Date Extracted: [December 1, 2019].

References

1. Source: International Shortlist for Hospital Morbidity Tabulation, Eurostat, OECD, & WHO, November 2008. [cited 2010 December 13]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/implementation/ hospitaldischarge.htm Any single-cause diagnosis beginning with ‘Other’ was grouped together with ‘All Others’ (e.g. (120) Other Injuries).