Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Injuries and Prevention

Traumatic Brain Injuries

Emergency Visits
Hospitalizations

This HealthSTATS page provides data on injuries to the head and uses the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) definition, which includes at least one of the following: (i) observed or self-reported alteration of consciousness or amnesia due to head trauma; (ii) neurologic or neuropsychological changes or diagnoses of skull fracture or intracranial lesions that can be attributed to the head trauma; (iii) or an occurrence of death resulting from trauma with head injury or traumatic brain injury listed in the sequence of conditions that resulted in death.

Emergency Visits

According to the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS), in 2017, there were over 2,400 emergency visits per year for traumatic brain injuries in Simcoe Muskoka. The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits in Simcoe Muskoka for all ages and sexes in 2017 was 441 (423.2, 458.8) visits per 100,000 population, which was significantly higher than the Ontario rate of 332 (328.9, 335.0) visits per 100,000 population.

There was a significant upward trend in the traumatic brain injury emergency visit rates in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario for the 15-year period from 2003 to 2017, with an average annual increase of approximately nine per cent per year. The Simcoe Muskoka rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates over this entire time period.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits in Simcoe Muskoka among males in 2017 was 451 (426.4, 477.3) visits per 100,000, which was not significantly different from the Simcoe Muskoka female rate of 430 (406.3, 456.5) visits per 100,000. The local rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates for both males and females for the entire 15-year period from 2003 to 2017. While the male traumatic brain injury rates had been significantly higher than the female rates over the 13 years from 2003 to 2015, the rates have not been significantly different for the past two years of available data (2016 to 2017).

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The age-specific rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits between 2013 and 2017 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka was highest among youth between 10 and 19 years of age at 1,024 (988.8, 1059.5) visits per 100,000. This was more than twice the rate for any other age-group over this time period. The age-specific Simcoe Muskoka rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates for all age-groups over this time period.

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The Simcoe Muskoka youth (10-19 years) traumatic brain injury emergency department visit rates among females have increase more than five-fold over the 15 years from 2003 to 2017; whereas the male rates have more than doubled over this same time period. The rates among male youth had been significantly higher than the comparable female rates from 2003 to 2013; however, since that time the male and female rates have not been significantly different from each other.

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Sports and recreational activities were associated with more than one-third of all traumatic brain injury emergency visits among Simcoe Muskoka youth (10-19 years). Hockey, by far, was the most common recreational activity associated with a traumatic brain injury emergency visit among Simcoe Muskoka males (10-19 year). Being hit by a ball, hockey, and football or rugby were associated with a similar percentage of recreational activity associated traumatic brain injury emergency visits among Simcoe Muskoka females (10-19 years).

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The time period from 2011 to 2016 (combined), Simcoe Muskoka residents living in areas with the highest prevalence of low-income had significantly higher rates of traumatic brain injury emergency visits when compared with those living in all other areas.

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Hospitalizations

On average, there were over 250 hospital admissions per year for traumatic brain injuries in Simcoe Muskoka between 2013 and 2017. About one in every eight emergency visit for traumatic brain injury led to a hospital admission in Simcoe Muskoka over this five-year period; however, age was strongly associated with a subsequent hospital admission. For example, over half of emergency visits for traumatic brain injury among older seniors (75+ years) led to an admission, which was more than twenty times higher than the two per cent of visits among youth (10-19 years) that led to a hospital admission.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka for all ages and sexes in 2017 was 41.1 (36.2, 46.6) admissions per 100,000 population, which was not significantly different from the Ontario rate of 43.7 (42.6, 44.8) admissions per 100,000 population.

There was a significant upward trend in the traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario over the 15-year period from 2003 to 2017. The Simcoe Muskoka traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates were not significantly different from the provincial rates for the majority years from 2003 to 2017.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka among males in 2017 was 53.4 (45.3, 62.6) admissions per 100,000, which was significantly higher than the Simcoe Muskoka female rate of 30.0 (24.3, 36.8) admissions per 100,000. The Ontario traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates for males and females were not significantly different from the comparable local rates for 2017. Both the male and female traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates increased significantly over the 15-year period from 2003 to 2017.

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Between 2013 and 2017 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka, the traumatic brain injury hospitalization rate was highest among seniors 75 years of age and older at 242 (221.9, 264.0) admissions per 100,000, which was three-times the rate for seniors 65 to 74 years and more than seven times the rate for any other age group. The age-specific Simcoe Muskoka traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates were not significantly different from the comparable provincial rates for any age-groups for this five-year time period.

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Falls were associated with more than half of all traumatic brain injury hospital admissions in Simcoe Muskoka over the 13-years from 2003 to 2015 and this association was strongest among seniors.

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For the time period from 2011 to 2016 (combined), Simcoe Muskoka residents living in areas with the highest prevalence of low-income had significantly higher rates of traumatic brain injury hospital admissions when compared with those living in areas with the lowest prevalence of low-income.

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