Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Injuries and Prevention

Traumatic Brain Injuries

Emergency Visits
Hospitalizations

This HealthSTATS page provides data on injuries to the head and uses the Association of Public Health Epidemiologists in Ontario (APHEO) definition, which includes at least one of the following: (i) observed or self-reported alteration of consciousness or amnesia due to head trauma; (ii) neurologic or neuropsychological changes or diagnoses of skull fracture or intracranial lesions that can be attributed to the head trauma; (iii) or an occurrence of death resulting from trauma with head injury or traumatic brain injury listed in the sequence of conditions that resulted in death.

For more local data on traumatic brain injuries and other health topics see the interactive dashboards available on Simcoe Muskoka HealthMAPS.

Emergency Visits

According to the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS), in 2018, there were over 2,400 emergency visits per year for traumatic brain injuries in Simcoe Muskoka. The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits in Simcoe Muskoka in 2018 was 435 (418.1, 452.9) visits per 100,000 population, which was significantly higher than the Ontario rate of 325 (322.1, 328.0) visits per 100,000 population.

There was a significant upward trend in the traumatic brain injury emergency visit rates in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario for the 16-year period from 2003 to 2018, with an average annual increase of approximately nine per cent per year. The Simcoe Muskoka rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates over this entire time period.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits in Simcoe Muskoka among males in 2018 was 430 (405.8, 454.5) visits per 100,000, which was not significantly different from the Simcoe Muskoka female rate of 441 (416.8, 467.1) visits per 100,000. The local rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates for both males and females for the entire 16-year period from 2003 to 2018. While the male traumatic brain injury rates had been significantly higher than the female rates over the 13 years from 2003 to 2015, the rates have not been significantly different for the past three years of available data (2016 to 2018).

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The age-specific rate for traumatic brain injury emergency visits between 2014 and 2018 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka was highest among youth between 10 and 19 years of age at 1,070 (1034.3, 1106.2) visits per 100,000. This was more than twice the rate for any other age-group over this time period. The age-specific Simcoe Muskoka rates were significantly higher than the comparable provincial rates for all age-groups over this time period, other than seniors 75 years of age and older.

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The Simcoe Muskoka youth (10-19 years) traumatic brain injury emergency department visit rates among females have increase approximately five-fold over the 16 years from 2003 to 2018; whereas the male rates have more than doubled over this same time period. The rates among male youth had been significantly higher than the comparable female rates from 2003 to 2013; however, since that time the male and female rates have not been significantly different from each other.

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Sports and recreational activities were associated with half of all traumatic brain injury emergency visits among Simcoe Muskoka male youth (10-19 years) and more than one-third among female youth. Hockey was the most common recreational activity associated with a traumatic brain injury emergency visit among Simcoe Muskoka male youth, followed by football/rugby. Being hit by a ball was the most common recreational activity associated with a traumatic brain injury emergency visit among Simcoe Muskoka female youth.

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For the time period from 2014 to 2018 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka, traumatic brain injury emergency visits were highest among those living in areas with the highest amount of material deprivation (as measured by the 2016 Ontario Marginalization Index).

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Hospitalizations

On average, there were approximately 275 hospital admissions per year for traumatic brain injuries in Simcoe Muskoka between 2014 and 2018. About one-in-twelve emergency visit for traumatic brain injury led to a hospital admission in Simcoe Muskoka over this five-year period; however, age was strongly associated with a subsequent hospital admission. For example, half of emergency visits for traumatic brain injury among older seniors (75+ years) led to an admission, compare with less than one per cent of visits among youth (10-19 years) that led to a hospital admission.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka for all ages and sexes in 2018 was 47.5 (42.3, 53.2) admissions per 100,000 population, which was not significantly different from the Ontario rate of 42.2 (41.2, 43.2) admissions per 100,000 population.

There was a significant upward trend in the traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates in both Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario over the 16-year period from 2003 to 2018. The Simcoe Muskoka traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates were not significantly different from the provincial rates for the majority years from 2003 to 2018.

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The age-standardized rate for traumatic brain injury hospitalizations in Simcoe Muskoka among males in 2018 was 60.7 (52.2, 70.2 ) admissions per 100,000, which was significantly higher than the Simcoe Muskoka female rate of 33.7 (27.9, 40.5) admissions per 100,000. The Ontario traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates for males and females were not significantly different from the comparable local rates for 2018. Both the male and female traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates increased significantly over the 16-year period from 2003 to 2018.

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Between 2014 and 2018 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka, the traumatic brain injury hospitalization rate was highest among seniors 75 years of age and older at 250 (229.8, 272.3) admissions per 100,000, which was three-times the rate for seniors 65 to 74 years and more than seven times the rate for any other age group. The age-specific Simcoe Muskoka traumatic brain injury hospitalization rates were not significantly different from the comparable provincial rates for any age-groups for this five-year time period.

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Falls were associated with nearly two-thirds of all traumatic brain injury hospital admissions in Simcoe Muskoka over the five-years from 2014 to 2018 and this association was strongest among seniors 65 years of age and older.

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For the time period from 2014 to 2018 (combined) in Simcoe Muskoka, traumatic brain injury hospital admissions were highest among those living in areas with the highest amount of material deprivation (as measured by the 2016 Ontario Marginalization Index).

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