Map of Simcoe Muskoka

Infectious Diseases

HIV/AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. It is transmitted when infected body fluids such as blood, semen or vaginal secretions come in contact with an uninfected person's broken skin or mucous membranes. Some examples of how transmission can occur are: vaginal, anal or oral sex, sharing of drug equipment or an infected mother can pass it to her child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding. There are methods of preventing HIV transmission as well as therapies to manage the infection, but there is no cure. All of the health unit’s offer confidential HIV testing and counseling. The health unit now offers an anonymous HIV testing clinic which can include point of care HIV testing

AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Some people with HIV will develop AIDS as a result of their HIV infection. People with AIDS often develop certain infections and/or cancers, and have fewer immune cells to protect them. For more information, see the CATIE’s HIV and AIDS Fact Sheet.

Simcoe Muskoka
Ontario
By Age Group
By Sex
Technical Notes

Simcoe Muskoka

The following graph shows the number of new HIV and AIDS cases in Simcoe Muskoka between 2000 and 2018. There have been between 3 and 17 cases of HIV in Simcoe Muskoka every year since 2000. In 2018, 10 new cases of HIV/AIDS were reported to the health unit. The most common risk factors reported among HIV cases in Simcoe Muskoka in recent years are “sex with same sex,” “anonymous sex,” and “no condom used.” As most reported cases are male, this represents men who have casual or anonymous unprotected sex with men.

2014HIV_counts

New cases of AIDS are shown in the graph below for 2000 to 2018. In 2018, no new cases of AIDS were reported to the health unit.

AIDS_count

Ontario

The following graph shows the age-standardized incidence rate of new HIV in Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario between 2005 and 2018. The Ontario data from 2000-2004 are not available. The incidence rate in Simcoe Muskoka is lower than the Ontario rate with 1.8 cases per 100,000 population as compared with 6.3 cases per 100,000 population in Ontario.

2014HIV_rates

The following graph shows the age-standardized incidence rate of new AIDS cases in Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario between 2005 and 2018. The incidence rate in Simcoe Muskoka is similar to the Ontario rate with 0.0 cases per 100,000 population as compared with 0.6 cases per 100,000 population in Ontario.

AIDS_rate95CI

By Age

The following graph shows the age-specific incidence rate of HIV in Simcoe Muskoka between 2000 and 2018. The age-specific rates are variable because they are based on small numbers of cases. In the last three years, the highest incidence rate has been observed among 25-39 year olds.

2014HIV_agegrps

By Sex

The following graph shows the sex-specific incidence rate of HIV in Simcoe Muskoka between 2000 and 2018. The sex specific rates are variable because they are based on small numbers of cases. The incidence of HIV in males is higher than the incidence rate among females in most years. In 2018, the rates were comparable: the male rate was 1.8 cases per 100,000 population and the female rate was 1.4 cases per 100,000 population.

2014HIV_mf

More detailed data for Ontario and each health unit can be found on Public Health Ontario’s interactive Reportable Disease Trends in Ontario tool.

Technical Notes

There are many factors that influence how many cases are reported to the health unit, as explained on the Infectious Diseases page.

There is some variability in the Simcoe Muskoka incidence rate, which means that there are multiple peaks and valleys and it is difficult to determine whether an increase is significant or whether it is within the expected range for this disease.

HIV and AIDS are chronic diseases. Once someone is infected with HIV/AIDS, they have the infection and can infect other people for the rest of their lives. This means that the number of people who can spread the disease is not only the number of new cases (incidence) every year; it is also the number of existing cases (prevalence) from previous years. The provincial reportable disease database (iPHIS) counts incidence and not prevalence, so the graphs on this page only show the number of new cases every year and not existing cases. Therefore, the number of people infected with HIV/AIDS in Simcoe Muskoka (i.e. those who can spread the disease) is higher than the numbers shown in the graphs.

Due to the small number of cases, there is a lot of variability in the sex-specific and age-specific rates.